Cellular agriculture

This content was prepared by Dr Olivia Ogilvie, a research fellow working on future protein sources. As part of this role, Olivia is working as a part-time seconded fellow aligned with the OPMCSA.

Cellular agriculture is an alternative farming method for products like meat, milk, eggs and raw ingredients. It differs from existing agricultural practices because it uses isolated cells rather than animals to produce food.

Scroll down to explore a brief overview of cellular agriculture and a resource portal with annotated links to help you understand the state of the technology internationally. Some of these resources discuss alternative proteins in general, touching in specific sections on cellular agriculture.

You can also download the overview and a glossary of technical jargon using the buttons below.

This page is a ‘living resource’ and will evolve throughout Olivia’s project. If you have or know of a resource that would be useful to include here, please share it with Olivia.


A gif showing the cellular agriculture process to make a meat pattie for a burger

Image credit: New Harvest (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).

What is cellular agriculture?

Cellular agriculture is an alternative farming method for products like meat, milk, eggs and raw ingredients. It differs from existing agricultural practices because it uses isolated cells rather than animals to produce food. There are two classes of cellular agriculture, both of which involve the culturing or growing of cells under controlled conditions.

The first is acellular agriculture. Acellular goods do not contain cells within the final consumer product, but instead contain proteins, fats or flavour compounds that have been isolated from cultured cells. Examples of acellular agricultural products include milk, eggs, and vanilla.

The second class is cell-based products; these contain cultured animal cells. Examples of cell-based products include meat-based foods like patties, sausages and steak. Food produced using cellular agriculture contains authentic animal proteins and cells. Because of this, these products fundamentally differ from those made using only plant-proteins, another emerging class of alternative protein.

Can I buy cellular agriculture products in the supermarket?

The availability of products produced using cellular agriculture depends on where you live. The technology is in its early stages of development. There are no products available within Aotearoa New Zealand and only two overseas.

The first is an ice cream that contains milk proteins produced using acellular agriculture. Perfect Day Foods and Brave Robot manufacture this ice cream which is only available in the US and online.

The second product is a chicken nugget that contains plant protein and chicken cells produced using cellular agriculture. Eat Just makes this cell-based product which is currently available in one Singapore restaurant. Despite this, the technology is developing rapidly. Each week cellular agriculture start-ups announce significant technical and commercial milestones.

Perfect Day ice cream in a tub and scooped into a bowl

Perfect Day ice cream is made using whey protein from non-animal sources. Image credit: Perfect Day.

Chicken nuggets made from cultured chicken cells on a wooden board

Chicken nuggets made from cultured chicken cells have been approved in Singapore. Image credit: Eat Just/Business Wire.

What are the perceived benefits of cellular agriculture?

Because cellular agriculture is still under development, we cannot thoroughly verify its benefits. Current predictions are based on models which compare the potential efficiency of this technology against animal farming systems. Notably for Aotearoa New Zealand, the current models compare the efficiency of cellular agriculture against feedlots and farming practices from the US and Europe.

Some notable benefits include the ability of cellular agriculture to reduce our reliance on animals, improve animal welfare and reduce the effects of animal agriculture on the environment. Undoubtedly, solving the current climate crisis while feeding the projected global population over the next 30-100 years requires innovation throughout the value chain. Cellular agriculture is just one example of how innovation may be introduced.

The possible environmental benefits include decreasing land use, water use and greenhouse gas emissions. The degree of these environmental benefits is significant, with estimates ranging between 50 and 90%; this will be dependent on the power source for cellular agricultural plants (renewable energy). Other notable benefits include reducing the degree of antibiotic use and the chance of future zoonosis events like COVID-19.

Cellular agriculture processes in more depth

The processes used to produce acellular and cell-based products are significantly different. Acellular agriculture uses an established technique called recombinant protein expression. Recombinant protein expression is the process of hijacking (typically) bacteria or yeast cells to produce a target molecule, such as a milk protein. To hijack the cell, the DNA corresponding to the molecule is selected and added to the genetic make-up of the bacteria/yeast. The micro-organisms are then cultured, producing many copies of the target molecule which is isolated and purified from the micro-organisms then used to formulate a product. Recombinant protein expression has been used since the late-1970’s to produce food ingredients, medicines and vaccines. The novelty of applying this process in cellular agriculture is the large-scale application of the technology.

A diagram showing the process of acellular agriculture

Cell-based products are produced using an established technique called tissue engineering. Tissue engineering involves the culturing and control of animal cells using cell culture and can be used to create different end-products, such as organs and tissues (muscle). During tissue engineering, cells are isolated from animal tissue, then feed specific nutrient mixes under controlled conditions. The most common cell type used to produce cell-based products are muscle-derived cells called myocytes. Cell culture is a well-established process in research laboratories around the world and is commonly used to study the efficacy of drugs and model disease development.

A diagram showing the process of making cell-based products in the lab

Are foods produced using cellular agriculture genetically modified?

There are different possible production processes for cellular agriculture, some use genetic modification while others don’t. The production of acellular products involves genetic modification of yeast/bacterial cells; however, the target molecule is not genetically modified. Some of the production processes for cell-based meat involve genetic modification, while others don’t. Both available cellular agriculture food products (ice cream and chicken nugget) are not genetically modified.

Cellular agriculture resource portal

Sustainable agricultural systems

The articles below discuss the sustainability of food production systems in both a local and global context. They demonstrate that the degree to which agriculture negatively affects the environment is contested. Additionally, the meaning of ‘food system sustainability’ varies depending on the geographic perspective and local issues. There are many different ‘sustainable farming’ initiatives, locally and internationally. In Aotearoa New Zealand, initiatives range from policy interventions to decreasing farming intensity, changing feedstock composition and developing methane vaccines.

These articles do not explicitly discuss cellular agriculture but give an overview to existing food production systems.


Low-emissions economy – New Zealand Productivity Commission (2018) is a macro analysis of greenhouse gas emissions levels within Aotearoa New Zealand. It highlights the emissions reductions required to reach the Paris 2050 goals and potential strategies to achieve these. Specific sections throughout discuss potential reduction strategies for pastoral agriculture.

The following two articles present contrasting viewpoints on greenhouse gas emissions from Aotearoa New Zealand sheep and beef farms. The Beef + Lamb NZ-funded report suggests these farms are carbon neutral while the Ministry for the Environment report suggests otherwise.

Farms, forests and fossil fuels: The next great landscape transformation? – Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (March 2019). This article gives an in-depth overview of farming in Aotearoa New Zealand, discussing the multifaceted landscape of its environmental impacts and potential solutions. It critically summarises scientific studies conducted within Aotearoa New Zealand that improve on-farm sustainability by altering farming practices.

NetZero New Zealand – Pure Advantage (an Aotearoa New Zealand-based organisation that champions environmentally focused business practices). This research discusses sustainability issues with our broader economy focusing on agriculture within specific chapters. Unlike other articles, it contains comments from politicians and thought leaders, providing the reader with insights into the diverse landscape of opinions on how Aotearoa New Zealand could tackle the issues discussed.

The Science of Regenerative Agriculture – Dr Gwen Grelet (2020) discusses how regenerative agricultural practices can increase farming sustainability and productivity. A more detailed presentation is found here.

The New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre is a government-funded research organisation that investigates agriculture emissions and reduction strategies for Aotearoa New Zealand. They have produced a number of articles on issues and strategies for decreasing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions within Aotearoa New Zealand. These do not discuss alternative proteins but focus on improving traditional agriculture. Relevant reports discussing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies include:


The future of food and agriculture: Alternative pathways to 2050 – Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (2018). This report presents a critical analysis of the food production system internationally, highlighting the anticipated challenges to food production over the next 30 years. It then uses scenario modelling to explore different possible outcomes of interventions within specific agricultural segments.

Building a common vision for sustainable food and agriculture – Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (2014). A high-level report that discusses the current challenges faced by agriculture systems, highlighting various policy strategies that can be implemented to ensure “food is nutritious and accessible for everyone, and natural resources are managed in a way that maintains ecosystem functions”.

The meaning of ‘sustainable agriculture’ differs between countries dependent on many factors, including their existing food systems, the stability of these systems, population demographics, climate conditions and the cultural significance of farming. The articles below demonstrate the global variability in ‘sustainable farming’.

Alternative proteins

The term ‘alternative protein’ encompasses a range of protein sources that are potential substitutes to traditional animal proteins (beef, lamb, chicken, fish). It includes fermented proteins, insect protein, plant proteins and meat alternatives such as cellular agriculture.

The articles below display a range of perspectives on the role and threat of alternative proteins in existing food production systems. Cellular agriculture in general is discussed throughout.

The role of red meat in healthy & sustainable New Zealand diets – Beef + Lamb NZ (November 2020). This in-depth article describes the role of red meat in Aotearoa New Zealand society, covering nutrition, eating patterns, chronic disease, farming and sustainability. Page 56 covers cellular agriculture.

Shaping New Zealand’s food and fibre future – Ministry for Primary Industries (February 2017). This article summarises a series of workshops that focused on the future of food and fibre in Aotearoa New Zealand. It takes into account the potential future customers of Aotearoa New Zealand-produced food and fibre, future products and the effects of technology-driven disruption on the current production system.

Opportunities in plant-based foods-PROTEIN – Plant & Food Research (May 2018). This report discusses the opportunities for Aotearoa New Zealand to diversify our current agricultural practices and move toward plant-based proteins.

A list of government-compiled resources about the emerging food and beverage markets with potential relevance to Aotearoa New Zealand can be found here. These do not discuss cellular agriculture but cover the general food and beverage landscape in Aotearoa New Zealand. Potentially relevant reports include:

Cell-based meat

The following articles are specifically about cell-based meat. They cover the technology and sector at a high-level. Some discuss cell-based meat specifically in the context of the Aotearoa New Zealand food production system.


Synthetic food: should NZ worry? A scene setter – berl (May 2019). A high-level review of cellular agriculture, its technical challenges, potential benefits and the potential implications of its uptake on the Aotearoa New Zealand agricultural sector. A summary can be found here.

Meat without the moo: A lifecycle assessment comparison of cultured meat and NZ beef – Suzanne Young (2018). This article compares beef and cell-based meat, discussing the threats and opportunities to Aotearoa New Zealand. 

Synthetic foods – ANZ (2016). An early article written by a rural economist at ANZ regarding the place of cell-based meat in the Aotearoa New Zealand agriculture system. It reviews the technology and its barriers at a high level, the technologies pitch and counterpoints and how Aotearoa New Zealand agriculture can respond.

Changing proteins – Meat Industry Association (2018). Discusses the trends occurring internationally for cell-based meat and the challenges/opportunities for the Aotearoa New Zealand meat sector. It contains quotes from different Aotearoa New Zealand and international meat and alternative protein groups, giving an interesting contrast of perspectives.


Making sense of making meat: Key moments in the first 20 years of tissue engineering muscle to make food – Stephens, Sexton, & Driessen (July 2019). This article summarises the key milestones in the cell-based meat sector ranging from technical/scientific achievements, regulatory achievements, landmark events and commercial successes.

Scientific, sustainability and regulatory challenges of cultured meat – Post (July 2020). A review of cellular agriculture and the role of alternative proteins in food production systems. This article also contains a comparison of the existing scientific methods for cell-based meat and associated challenges with commercial production. Additionally, the current international regulatory environment for cell-based meat products is discussed.

Meat by the molecule: Making meat with plants and cells – Specht via The Good Food Institute (August 2018). A summary of how cell-based meat is made from the molecule up.

Is the future of meat animal-free? – Specht (January 2018). An overview of cell-based meat and a discussion about potential commercial challenges.

Cultured meat: An ethical alternative to industrial animal farming – Effective Altruism, Sentience Politics (June 2016). This contains an overview of cell-based meat, directly comparing it to conventional beef.

Acellular agriculture


Despite the relevance to Aotearoa New Zealand’s food production system and more advanced technological state, there are minimal analyses on acellular agriculture’s impact on Aotearoa New Zealand farming. The following are news articles that informally discuss the impact of acellular agriculture (synthetic milk) on Aotearoa New Zealand; they present contrasting views on the threats of synthetic milk and how Aotearoa New Zealand agriculture should respond.

Producers challenge synthetic promisesFarmers Weekly (October 2019). Discusses synthetic milk and critically questions the environmental benefit claims made by Perfect Day Foods.

BigAg must wake up to synthetic threatNZ Herald by Rachel Stewart (November 2017). A critical article of the Aotearoa New Zealand dairy industry’s percieved stance on acellular agriculture.

Synthetic foods to have ‘major impact’ within 10 to 15 years, Sir Peter GluckmanStuff, author Tom Pullar-Strecker (October 2017). An overview of Professor Sir Peter Gluckman’s talk at the NZBio conference in 2017 on synthetic milk and meat, and the impact of this technology on Aotearoa New Zealand agriculture. This talk is often referred to in media articles about acellular agriculture.

Fermentation? Synthetics? Plant? Insects? The low down on complementary nutrition – Fonterra (2019). An article by Fonterra about alternative proteins and acellular agriculture – see the bottom where they discuss their investment into US-based acellular agriculture product Motif Ingredient. For more information on the context of this investment see this article. See public commentary over this investment below:


Lab-grown dairy: The next food frontierThe Conversation, authors Mitchell Gingerich and Michael von Massow (June 2019). A high-level overview of acellular agriculture.

State of the industry report – Fermentation: An introduction to a pillar of the alternative protein industry – The Good Food Institute (2020). An overview of the wider alternative protein fermentation industry touching on acellular agriculture.

Market analysis for cultured proteins in low- and lower-middle income countries – International Food Policy Research Institute (2019). This report is a market analysis for the potential of cultured proteins to become commodities in lower-income countries. The results presented were obtained by desk research and interview with key stakeholders including food aid organisations and manufacturers.

Cellular agriculture: An extension of common production methods for food – The Good Food Institute (March 2018). This article compares existing industrial precision fermentation techniques to acellular agriculture.

Cell-based seafood

Petri dish to plate: How close is cellular seafood? – Global Aquaculture Alliance (October 2018). A high-level overview of cell-based seafood and the state of the technology.

Sustainable Seafood Initiative – this information portal created by the Good Food Institute contains high-level information and more detailed resources on the state of cell-based seafood, presenting it in a positive light.

Cellular seafood – University of California (2021). A summary article of a research paper on cell-based seafood covering technology, society, market and its role in conservation. It concludes that cell-based seafood is unlikely to have benefits from a conservation perspective as is often claimed.

Alternative seafood: Assessing food, nutrition and livelihood futures of plant-based and cell-based seafood – WorldFish in partnership with International Food Policy Research Institute (2020). This report contains an in-depth analysis on the alternative seafood sector, assessing the potential societal implications of the technology. A particular focus is given to the potential effect of this technology on low-income countries and societies.

Policy & regulation


This statement from Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) highlights the official stance of FSANZ on cell-based meat regulation. Premarket approval will be required through Standard 1.5.1 Novel Foods under the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Act 1991. Other potential regulatory instruments may also apply to cell-based meat dependent on the composition of the product.

The Food Standards Australia New Zealand Application Handbook details the application process and requirements for novel food products.


Cultured meat: How to regulate alternatives to farmed meat: howtoregulate (November 2020). This is a think piece that dives into the regulation of cell-based meat internationally. It explores the general regulatory challenges, existing frameworks and compares the regulatory requirements across jurisdictions including Aotearoa New Zealand. Some key concepts covered by this article are defining ‘meat’, exploring the food safety implications of cell-based meat, labelling requirements and the potential role of international regulatory bodies.

Cultured proteins: An analysis of the policy and regulatory environment in selected geographies – PATH (October 2019).


Guidance information on safety assessment of novel foods (November 2020) is the current regulatory framework for cell-based meat in Singapore, enforced by the Singapore Food Agency. This framework is regarded as the most advanced internationally. Other useful Singapore Food Agency resources/articles include:


Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Novel Foods (November 2015) details the novel foods regulatory framework under which cell-based meat is regulated in the European Union. Other useful European Union resources/articles include:


Formal agreement between FDA and USDA regarding oversight of human food produced using animal cell technology derived from cell lines of USDA-amenable species (July 2019) highlights the regulatory arrangement for cell-based meat in The United States. Regulatory oversight will be overseen jointly by the USDA and FDA; each will manage different stages of the production process. The following USDA/FDA resources are also useful:


Japan is beginning to explore the regulation of cell-based meat. The following are some preliminary articles released by the Japanese Government discussing findings and progress:

Life cycle analyses of cell-based meat

The argument by proponents of cell-based meat and milk is often the promise of environmental benefits when compared to traditional pastoral agriculture. The articles below discuss the predicted lifecycle of cell-based meat versus conventional agriculture. Notably, there is significant contention around 1) if there are benefits, 2) the degree of these benefits.

Meat without the moo: A lifecycle assessment comparison of cultured meat and NZ beef – Suzanne Young (2018). This article contains a life cycle analysis of Aotearoa New Zealand beef and cultured meat (values derived from scientific literature). It highlights the differences in land use, greenhouse gas emissions and water use.

Meat alternatives: life cycle assessment of most known meat substitutes – Smetana (July 2015). This study undertakes a cradle-to-plate analysis of cell-based meat finding that it is more energy demanding than pastoral meat.

Challenges in the quest for ‘clean meat’ – Thorrez and Vandenburgh (March 2019). A critical article that examines the challenges in the development of cell-based meat, particularly highlighting the limitations around environmental claims of the technology.

Review and gap-analysis of LCA-studies of cultured meat – Scharf, Breitmayer, & Carus (May 2019). This article reviews and compares scientific papers that conduct life-cycle analyses of cellular agriculture. It highlights the limitations and boundaries of existing studies.

The eco-friendly burger: Could cultured meat improve the environmental sustainability of meat products? –Tuomisto (December 2019). This article compares various life-cycle assessments of cell-based meat, highlighting where the models differ and the implications of these variations on the results.

Climate impacts of cultured meat and beef cattle – Lynch and Pierrehumbert (February 2019). Contains a detailed side-by-side comparison the climate implications of conventional beef versus cell-based meat, comparing different possible scenarios.

Consumer perceptions

Many groups have conducted surveys and held panel discussions to gauge the consumer acceptance of products produced with cellular agriculture; a range of positive and negative conclusions have been drawn. The following are a small selection of these.

Using environmental imperatives to reduce meat consumption: perspectives from New Zealand – Tucker (2018). This study examines the effect of the environmental perceptions of meat on consumer behaviour (69 people). It found that the potential environmental benefits of cultured meat were overwhelmed by negative emotions on perceived ‘naturalness’.

Messages to overcome naturalness concerns in clean meat acceptance: Primary findings – faunalytics (July 2018). A consumer study of cell-based meat perceptions (1185 people). A summary can be found here.

A survey of consumer perceptions of plant-based and clean meat in the USA, India, and China – Byrant et al., (February 2019). This article compares the perceptions of cell-based meat and alternative protein sources across various jurisdictions.

The impact of framing on acceptance of cultured meat – Byrant & Dillard (July 2019). This research article gauges the consumer acceptance of cell-based meat when different names and explanations for the technology are used.


Products produced using cellular agriculture will require specific labels; this is specified in all existing regulatory frameworks (see ‘Policy and regulation’). However, no universal labelling term exists to dictate a product has been produced with cellular agriculture. To date, no country has specifically addressed this issue.

Cell-based meat: Current ambiguities with nomenclature – Ong, Choudhury and Naing (August 2020). This article investigates the range of names associated with cellular agriculture.

Labeling of foods comprised of or containing cultured seafood cells; Request for information – FDA (October 2020). This is a public request for information regarding the labelling requirements for cultured seafood cells.

FDA and USDA roles and responsibilities for cultured animal cell human and animal food products – USDA/FDA (July 2020). This video details the responsibilities of the FDA/USDA for cell-based meat regulation. Labelling is discussed throughout. A summary of this video written by the media outlet GreenQueen is found here.

Food label censorship: Anti-market & anti-speech – The Good Food Institute (November 2019). An overview of labelling censorship and its potential implications.

Perfect Day Foods Inc GRAS notice contains the first approved application for an acellular agriculture milk product in the USA, awarded to Perfect Day Foods. The labelling requirements for this product are discussed throughout.

When could cell-cultured food products appear on the Codex agenda? – CODEX Alimentarius International Food Standards (April 2019). This is an opinion from CODEX regarding labelling of products produced with cellular agriculture.

Peripherally related to cellular agriculture, there has been an ongoing proposal within the European Parliament about the use of meat labels (sausage, burger, steak) on non-meat products. For example, the use of “veggie-burger” to describe plant-based burger patties. This proposal was recently rejected in Parliament. Conversely, it was recently ruled that plant-based milk and butter alternatives cannot be labelled with designations such as “cream”, “milk” and “butter”. Less drastic issues have also arisen in Aotearoa New Zealand; see this article about The Poultry Industry Association New Zealand’s complaint against Sunfed Meats which was overturned. Industry leaders within cellular agriculture anticipate similar disputes will arise when cell-based meat products reach the market.

Religious perspectives

Although touched on briefly in several articles elsewhere, the following discuss the implications of cellular agriculture through various religious and cultural lenses.

A Jewish religious perspective on cellular agriculture – Kenigsberg & Zivotofsky (January 2020). An academic discussion on the potential kosher status of cell-based meat and speculating the implications of cellular agriculture on the Jewish community.

Cultured meat in Islamic perspective – Hamdan, Post, Ramli, & Mustafa, (April 2017). An academic discussion about the potential halal status of cell-based meat.

Culture, meat, and cultured meat – Bryant (August 2020). This article investigates the perception of cell-based meat within society, including the media and academia taking into account religious perceptions of the technology.

Muslim millennials and cultured meat consumption – Lucius (June 2020). A detailed study of the consumer opinions and religious implications of cell-based meat through an Islamic lens.

Will Muslim consumers replace livestock slaughter with cultured meat in the market? – Naqib Hamdan (2021). Contains an analysis of cultured meat and its place in Muslim culture, particularly in relation to ritual sacrifice.

The cellular agriculture industry

The Good Food Institute is an international non-profit that supports both research and commercial activities on alternative proteins. They have created a company database of start-ups working on alternative proteins.

The KindEarth.Tech Maps have collated visual maps of commercially active companies in the alternative protein space. Find them here 

Good Food Institute: Annual state of the industry report (2019) details the technical achievements, companies and general commercial activity in the cellular agriculture ecosystem.

Good Food Institute: Student guide to cellular agriculture (living document) is a guide for students about cellular agriculture, what courses to take, the job opportunities available and the sources available for research funding.

Food Frontier Australia and New Zealand alternative proteins company directory (living document) contains a list of alternative protein companies (plant and animal protein) in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand. The list will be regularly updated.

Organisations supporting cellular agriculture

The Good Food Institute is an international non-profit that supports both commercial and academic research and general strategic support to companies working within the alternative protein space.

New Harvest is a non-profit based in the USA that supports both research and commercialisation of cellular agriculture internationally.

Food Frontier is an independent think-tank based in Australia and New Zealand that supports the alternative protein community.

Cellular Agriculture Society is a USA based think tank and non-profit that supports cellular agriculture through a range of outreach activities.

Technical databases

The following databases are useful compilations of technical activities within the cellular agriculture space.

The Good Food Institute research database (living database). Contains profiles of the research labs working in the field of cellular agriculture.

The Good Food Institute collaborative research directory (living database). Contains the contact details of researchers working within the alternative protein sector who are searching for collaboration opportunities.

The Good Food Institute research tools directory (living database). Contains information for reagents, suppliers and methods for cultivated meat research.

Technical papers

The following are a small selection of the technical reviews and publications available on cellular agriculture. They should be treated only as a starting point to the scientific literature.

Muscle stem cell isolation and in vitro culture for meat production: A methodological review – Choi et al., (October 2020). A review of the technical processes and variations used to produce cultured animal cells.

Textured soy protein scaffolds enable the generation of three-dimensional bovine skeletal muscle tissue for cell-based meat – Ben-Ayre et al., (April 2020). A technical paper highlighting how plant protein can be used to create a scaffold and hybrid plant-animal product.

Tissue engineering for clean meat production – Ben-Ayre et al., (June 2019). A review of the different cell types found in conventional meat, their properties and implications in cellular agriculture. An overview of the different possible biomaterials for cell culture. An examination of the relationship between gene expression and meat quality and implications for cellular agriculture.

Formation of contractile 3D bovine muscle tissue for construction of millimetre-thick cultured steak – Furuhashi et al., (2021). A paper demonstrating novel techniques to achieve 3D tissue culture of myocytes.

Last updated: 12 April 2021