Every 4 minutes is the third in a series of reports (Using evidence to build a better justice system: The challenge of rising prison costs and It’s never too early, never too late: A discussion paper on preventing youth offending in New Zealand) related to the criminal-justice system, as the cumulative effects of family violence and child maltreatment are associated with later criminal-justice involvement, as well as negative physical and mental health effects. The report was written by the Chief Scientist for the Justice Sector, Dr Ian Lambie.